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Industrial background, core technology and market analysis of agricultural robots in my country

China is a major food importer. Cheap grain hurts farmers, expensive rice hurts people. China’s food security is in a double squeeze, costs are rising and prices are falling, so the sustainable development of agriculture is a double squeeze. At present, China’s grain has the purchase price of grain to protect it. Domestic grain is higher than that of foreign countries, and grain processing and trade enterprises have expanded their scale to achieve profitability. Therefore, more and more enterprises are turning to foreign countries. The price of most agricultural products in the international market has fallen, which is very much lower than the domestic price. On July 28, 2015 (last week), the domestic and foreign grain prices: From October 2014 to May 2015, the international market corn dropped by 6%, and rice dropped by 4%. , wheat fell by 18%, domestic corn was 2340 yuan per ton, and the international (US) price was less than 1000 yuan. Domestic rice is 4,560 yuan per ton, and the international price is about 2,500 yuan. Domestic wheat is more than 4,000 yuan per ton, and the international price is less than 2,000 yuan. The FOB price in the United States is less than 1/3 the domestic grain price.

National strategic goal: Grains are basically self-sufficient, and food rations are absolutely safe. That is to say, we should focus on me, base ourselves on the country, ensure production capacity, and import moderately. my country is a member of the WTO. The WTO yellow line subsidy price cannot be too high, and it will face complaints if it is too high.
China currently manages corn and wheat quotas. In 2015, the grain import quota was: 9.36 million tons of wheat, 7.2 million tons of corn, and 5.32 million tons of rice. It is necessary to protect farmers and grow grain. Why are food prices so high in our country? Reasons for high food prices: 1. High labor costs 2. Low agricultural productivity, low labor productivity, low resource utilization, and low land productivity. If the state does not limit the purchase price, domestic farmers will not be able to grow grain. my country’s agricultural productivity is low, 47% of the world average, 2% of developed countries, and 1% of the United States and Japan. Compared with China: labor productivity is 100 times that of China, labor land occupation rate is 3,400 times, and the number of laborers is less than 1% of China’s.
In the United States, the agricultural population is less than 2%, but it feeds 300 million Americans, has a lot of food, and is also a major exporter of grains. Two or three people can plant thousands of tons of wheat and corn. There are about 2 million farms in the United States, each with an average area of ​​about 20,000 mu, and an average of 1.6 people per farm of about 20,000 mu. The agricultural population is around 3.5 million. The per capita labor productivity produces 180 tons of grain and 5.5 tons of beef per person per year.
In China, each labor force has about 4.4 mu of land per person. At present, there are about 200 million agricultural laborers. Every year, 10 million people leave the land and go into urbanization. In fact, we have a severe labor shortage. The most serious problem in China at present: who will farm in the future? How to plant? Those who stick to agriculture are called 386160 (38 women, 61 left-behind children, people born in the 1960s). What China needs to reform and reform in farming is the means and methods of farming to improve efficiency.
The pollution of water, fertilizer, soil and land is huge
Farming is inseparable from water and fertilizer. What does our country’s annual bumper harvest rely on to support? It depends on fertilizers and pesticides. The utilization rate of chemical fertilizers in my country is 50% of the international advanced level, and the annual water consumption is 900 cubic meters. More than 40 million tons of chemical fertilizers are used, and 200,000 tons of original drugs are consumed. my country’s total agricultural water consumption is 360 billion cubic meters per year, accounting for 62% of the country’s total water consumption. In 2014, the total amount of chemical fertilizers used in my country was 60 million tons, and these values ​​were the first in the world.
Water my country is the 13th poorest country in the world in terms of water resources, and it is also the country with the most waste of water resources. The annual agricultural waste water consumption is equivalent to more than three times the water of the Yellow River. The surface water of rivers and lakes is basically dry, and now the wells are being drilled from a few meters to several hundred meters. The common people say that water is like oil. How much grain can be produced by one ton of water, according to the professional statement, is the output ratio of water and grain. For example, Heilongjiang is the province with the most developed land resources and relatively high grain production. The output ratio of water and grain in Heilongjiang is 1.5 catties per ton of water. The water grain output ratio of Ningxia wheat is 1.2 catties.
Fertilizer my country’s fertilizer consumption accounts for 1/3 of the world’s total. There are 60 million tons of chemical fertilizers each year, and the utilization rate is about 30%. We have 4,000 tons of chemical fertilizers every year that are not absorbed by crops, but remain in the soil. At present, the National Soil and Fertilizer Engineering Research Center has tested that the main components of chemical fertilizers in soil sampling in Shanxi, Shandong and other places are carbon, phosphorus and potassium, which have seriously exceeded the standard. Especially in Jiangsu sampling, the content of phosphorus exceeded the standard by more than ten times. Then Israel’s water resources are 95%, the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers is 90%, and the water output ratio is 4 times that of China. Therefore, in 2014, the Ministry of Agriculture issued a national report at all levels, and 40% of our country’s 1.8 billion mu of arable land was seriously degraded, among which was the pollution caused by chemical fertilizers.
Land resources – black land is usually said that all things are born from the soil, and there is soil and there is food. The quality of arable land is very relevant, black soil is recognized as the most fertile soil in the world. The cultivated area of ​​black land in Northeast China is 480 million mu, which is one of the three largest black land in the world. The three northeastern provinces account for about 1/3 of the country’s reserves, which are very important to ensure food security. It takes hundreds of years to form a centimeter of black soil, but we are now facing a reduction in volume. The black land has been developed and utilized intensively for a long time, and now it is gradually weakened.
Residual film is the mulching film of agriculture. The mulching film is used in the land (including greenhouses) in the north and south of the Yangtze River in China. Its functions are: soil consolidation and moisture retention. But it brings serious pollution. In 2011, the amount of plastic film used in my country reached 1.255 million tons, covering an area of ​​300 million mu. In the next ten years, the annual growth rate of 10% will reach 500 million mu. Taking Xinjiang as an example, the residual film will reach 655 kilograms per hectare, which is now recycled. The efficiency is low, the recovery rate of manual labor is insufficient, and the recovery rate is less than 20%. About 1 million tons of polypropylene residual film remain in the soil every year. According to scientific calculations, the residual film can be decomposed after 300 years in the soil. The decline of crops and the safety of food are very serious. The residual film technology was introduced from Japan, but the residual film in Japan has very strict regulations, that is, it can be rolled back when its thickness is used up. China’s 0.003 mm, in fact, when the sun shines on this film, the film will melt.
The core technology of the agricultural machinery industry is abroad
The agricultural machinery industry is in a critical period for the development of modern agriculture in the process of accelerating the transformation of traditional agriculture. After the introduction of agricultural machinery purchase subsidies in 2004, China’s agricultural machinery industry entered a golden decade. my country is a big country in agricultural machinery manufacturing. The Twelfth Five-Year Plan aims to achieve two quantitative indicators by 2015. One is: the power of agricultural units reaches 1 billion kilowatts, and the mechanization of farming and harvesting reaches more than 60%. This is the premise of China’s mechanization. China’s agricultural machinery market has attracted a lot of attention from international capital. It can be said that agricultural machinery giants have settled in China, such as Deere, Case New Holland, Kubota and so on. In China, more than 90% of advanced equipment is occupied. For example, John Deere has a history of 176 years, with sales of 32 billion US dollars and 101 billion yuan in 2014 and an agricultural machinery enterprise in the United States. In the capital market, John Deere is also a leader.
Case New Holland has a history of 100 years, and its products in China currently cover tractors, combine harvesters, cotton pickers, grape harvesters, and sugarcane harvesters. In 2014, the sales were 19 billion yuan, about 119 billion yuan. In 2013, the main business income of China’s agricultural machinery was 357 billion yuan. It is estimated that by 2015, China’s Industrial output value is expected to exceed 400 billion yuan. Around 2010, the total agricultural machinery industry in China is not as good as A John Deere. Therefore, in the problem of China’s agricultural machinery industry, the dependence of high-end agricultural equipment and intelligent equipment on foreign countries has reached 90%, which actually threatens national food security and agricultural product security. The share of core key technologies is less than 1%, and more than 90% of homogeneous production competition may have common characteristics with other industries, and the agricultural machinery industry is more serious. Under this premise, the new four modernizations of agricultural production are calling us! New four modernizations: agricultural informatization, planting precision, operation automation, and intelligent control. The agricultural machinery industry is in urgent need.
National strategies and policies strongly support agricultural machinery and equipment
First, for the first time in Made in China 2025, agricultural machinery industry equipment is listed in the top ten development areas. The State Council pointed out that agriculture should be developed by means of industry. It has laid the foundation for the future agricultural development mode, based on advanced industry. Second, the No. 1 document of the Central Committee has been related to agriculture for many years. Food security is not the security of food, but the security of production mode. The use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and high-end agricultural machinery and equipment , Third, agricultural machinery subsidies. It is estimated that agricultural machinery subsidies in 2015 will reach 33 billion yuan, driving consumption of 200 billion yuan. Moreover, in 2015, the agricultural machinery innovation subsidy and the agricultural machinery generalized system of preference can support high-end innovative products to go through many procedures and can be implemented in one step. In general, China’s agriculture has entered an inflection point. The scale of operation, the capitalization of investment, the automation of agricultural machinery, and the professionalization of farmers. Agricultural robot equipment should be the strategic needs of the country in the new era, the transformation needs of agricultural machinery, and the needs of the industry in the market.
Agricultural robots are actually traditional agricultural machinery equipment, when added with automation technology and sensing technology, as a means of agricultural precision equipment. His characteristics: agricultural machinery and equipment realize automation, intelligence and separation of man and machine in non-environmental conditions.
Technical Features
The information acquisition of agricultural robots in the natural environment is not structured like that of Industrial robots, such as welding and spraying. Agriculture is in an unstructured environment. His soil, space, light. His leaves and fruits are all unstructured environments.
Fusion of multiple sensors
Integration of Power Machines
Application Features
Diversity of light, space, light, and obstacles of animals and plants in unstructured environments, planted regional, seasonal, power machinery (automatic navigation accuracy of tractors), and agricultural machinery separation and precise operation. For example, John Deere launched a new automatic navigation with an accuracy of 2.5 cm, which can realize automatic driving, self-propelled driving, and ground profiling. The high horsepower can reach 450 horsepower and 600 horsepower in Heilongjiang Agricultural Reclamation, and 800 horsepower tractors are seen in German agriculture every year. . Under this kind of tractor, it is large, comprehensive and compound, which can carry all the operation equipment of sowing, Qilong, spraying, fertilizing, harvesting, weeding and sorting in one process.
The core and bottleneck key technologies of agricultural robots
Information acquisition in an unstructured environment
Sensing device for plant and animal physiological and ecological perception of crop information
Core integration of electromechanical industry
Agricultural robots and the adaptability of agriculture
integration problem
Why are there fewer agricultural robots in our country? Because it requires a cross-cutting technical point, it is necessary to understand both automation and agronomy. Otherwise, I don’t know how to intervene, which is a difficult problem to enter the field.
Research and development status of agricultural robots at home and abroad
The leading countries in agricultural robotics technology: the United States, Japan, the European Union, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, South Korea and Essex, mainly formed in the 1980s. The main factors: robots derived from the lack of labor, basic research on agricultural robots in the 1970s and 1980s, and less participation in the United States, Japan, Germany, and China. In the 1980s and 1990s, due to labor problems in developed countries, industrial robots developed rapidly.
Agricultural robots in Japan and South Korea are mainly planting facility agriculture with less land. Therefore, countries led by Japan introduced agricultural robots. At the beginning of the 20th century, advanced agricultural equipment brought steam machines, facilities, navigation, large-screen management, remote sensing, and Internet technologies to agricultural machinery, so that agricultural robots began to enter the market. Research on key technologies of agricultural robots. At present, Japan is the most developed in grafting, transplanting, harvesting, sorting, and postpartum processing in the world, with an application rate of 80% in the market, and the share of Japanese patents on core technologies is about 51%. Patents: 1. Animal and plant information sensing, core controller 2. High reliability electromechanical design technology 3. Agronomic intervention cultivation technology.
The United States, the United Kingdom, and Denmark are Daejeon Machinery. Orchard technology is better. Daejeon middle management machine. For example: intelligent weeding, remote sensing, monitoring, pesticide application, etc. in an international leading position. The share of core technology patents is around 40%.
The Netherlands and Australia have relatively developed animal husbandry, and their animal husbandry robots are more prominent, such as milking robots, animal ecological sensing technology, and milk monitoring technology.
Research and development at home and abroad became a research hotspot in the mid-1990s. China’s National Science and Technology Support 863 Project provides research topics for facility agricultural harvesting, pesticide application, weeding, and postpartum sorting. Main research units for information acquisition and agricultural product testing in unstructured environments: China Agricultural Robot Research Institute, China Agricultural University, Beijing Agricultural Engineering Center, Zhejiang University, Jiangsu University, etc.
In terms of agricultural robot enterprises: the status quo of China’s agricultural machinery is related, resulting in relatively weak industrialization. The agricultural machines made in China are tractors, implements, wheat and corn harvesters. The most important core technologies of agricultural robots:
Information acquisition in unstructured environment
Dynamic high-speed vision control
Market analysis
Research, production and market demand for national agricultural robots are out of touch. The market is ahead, and the space for the market and industry is huge.
In addition to the power machinery, there are four main points in the market application:
1. Plant protection robot. That is, every crop needs to be fertilized and fertilized. The demand for pollution, danger and precise operation of plant protection robots is an important industrial point in the international field.
2. Intelligent equipment in the field. The demand for labor is the largest, and it is like Daejeon. For example: navigation technology, precision spraying technology.
3. Harvest.
4. Postpartum processing.

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