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China’s manufacturing industry has turned from big to strong, and four key links for high-quality development need to be done well

China’s manufacturing industry has turned from big to strong, and four key links for high-quality development need to be done well

The Central Economic Work Conference proposed to focus on seven tasks in 2019, the first of which is to promote the high-quality development of the manufacturing industry. This task is in the same line as the previous two years. The Central Economic Work Conference held at the end of 2016 proposed to focus on revitalizing the real economy. In 2017, it emphasized the need to promote high-quality development. It can be said that the high-quality development of the manufacturing industry is not only the inheritance and continuation of the thinking of the central economic work in the past two years, but also the further focus and deepening of the current economic work focus, which reflects the central government’s high emphasis on the development of the real economy, and also contains the importance of economic work. important policy orientation.

Why pay attention to the development of manufacturing

From the perspective of economic proportion, my country has entered a new era dominated by the service industry. In 2017, the proportion of my country’s tertiary industry reached 51.6%, while the proportion of the secondary industry dropped to 40.5%, and the proportion of the tertiary industry has exceeded that of the secondary industry by 11 percentage points. Since the secondary industry includes mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water, and construction, the proportion of manufacturing is even lower. Although the proportion of my country’s manufacturing industry in GDP fell to 29.3% in 2017, far less than the share of the service industry, the importance of the manufacturing industry far exceeds its share of GDP.

First, manufacturing remains the main engine of economic growth.Manufacturing is the basis for the development of many other service industries, and many service industries, such as R&D and design, transportation, wholesale and retail, are based on manufacturing. The development of these producer services needs to rely on the revitalization of the manufacturing industry. If the development of the manufacturing industry is slow, the development of these service industries will inevitably be significantly affected. In addition, the manufacturing industry is the core area of ​​R&D innovation and efficiency improvement, and its technological progress is much faster than that of the service industry. Almost all major innovations in various industries occur in the manufacturing field. Therefore, although the manufacturing industry accounts for a small proportion, its efficiency is high. Rapid improvement is the key support for economic growth and productivity improvement.

Second, manufacturing is the core area of ​​international competition.Although the proportion of manufacturing in many countries is already low, the focus of competition among countries is still the development of manufacturing. Judging from the main areas targeted by the recent trade frictions between China and the United States, as well as between the United States and Japan, the European Union and other countries, the focus of competition among countries is the manufacturing industry. Manufacturing exports are the main source for countries to obtain foreign exchange income and exchange other resources. If the manufacturing export capacity is weak, except for some countries that rely on tourism and natural resources, it is generally difficult to obtain foreign exchange income, and they will not be able to exchange technologies from other countries. and products. Therefore, all countries generally attach importance to the development of the manufacturing industry and try their best to support the progress of the manufacturing industry.

Third, the difficulty of developing the manufacturing industry is a prominent problem in my country’s economy at present.In 2018, the overall efficiency of my country’s Industrial enterprises was good, but it was more difficult for private enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises. Most of these enterprises were in the manufacturing industry. In addition, for the first time in my country, the number of Industrial enterprises above designated size has decreased.

What is the high-quality development of manufacturing

For the high-quality development of the manufacturing industry, there is no accurate definition yet, but according to the development experience at home and abroad, it can be considered that it mainly includes four requirements.

First, the quality of products has been continuously improved to meet people’s needs for a better life.Product quality is improved, including continuous improvement in performance, life, safety, reliability, economy and appearance. Specifically, the continuous improvement of manufacturing quality, on the one hand, requires the continuous improvement of the quality standards of various products, which can reach or even exceed and lead the world’s advanced standards in some fields. Only with the steady improvement of quality standards can we guide the corresponding improvement of product quality. On the other hand, with standards, the inspection pass rate of products should be improved, counterfeit and shoddy goods should be less and less, and the goods on the market are safe and reliable. In fact, in many fields, the quality of my country’s manufactured products has been greatly improved, and some are even close to the world’s leading level. However, overall, there is still a lot of room for improvement.

Second, the production process is clean and efficient, meeting the requirements of harmonious development between man and nature.The production process of the manufacturing industry is an important source of pollutant emissions, and green manufacturing is an important requirement for high-quality development. To build a beautiful China, establish a sound economic system for green, low-carbon and circular development, and build an environmental governance system led by the government, with enterprises as the main body, social organizations and the public participating, the core is to require the production process of the manufacturing industry to be cleaner and more efficient. Environment friendly. The high-quality development of the manufacturing industry also requires the continuous improvement of production efficiency. The process of economic development is the process of technological progress, which is to be able to produce more and better products with less input. Improving production efficiency not only refers to the continuous improvement of labor productivity and the use of less labor in production, but also the continuous improvement of material productivity, the same product consumes less and less raw materials. There are many indicators that reflect the clean and efficient production process. For example, the discharge of pollutants per unit of output value, labor productivity, water consumption per unit of output value, and energy consumption per unit of output value are all important indicators of high-quality development.

Third, the corporate efficiency has been maintained at a good level, and the per capita added value has continued to increase.High-quality development must be reflected in better corporate benefits. Good corporate benefits require the optimization of the enterprise, industrial structure and business environment in many aspects. From the perspective of industrial structure, each industry should have a suitable level of competition, not too little, falling into monopoly, harming the interests of upstream and downstream and consumers, nor too fierce competition, especially falling into low-level homogeneous competition, all the Businesses are operating in a low-efficiency state. From the perspective of enterprises, in order to obtain better benefits, enterprise products are also required to have their own characteristics, certain innovations, or higher efficiency. From the point of view of the business environment, good corporate benefits also require a fair competition environment and oppose unfair competition among enterprises.

Fourth, the continuous improvement of international competitiveness provides greater market space for economic development.At present, my country is in a highly globalized economic environment, and the manufacturing industry cannot only be based on satisfying domestic demand, and products from all countries need to participate in global competition. If they cannot participate in international competition, enterprises cannot make full use of the international advanced technology level, and they will inevitably be widened in the global competition. One of the most important indicators of the continuous improvement of international competitiveness is that the share of the international market remains stable or even increases, especially the share of medium and high-tech products. As long as the international competitiveness continues to improve and the share of domestic products in the world is stable and increasing, there will be greater market demand, and by fully participating in the competition, the domestic technology level can be further improved, thereby promoting better development.

Do a good job in the four key links of high-quality development of the manufacturing industry

First, create a market mechanism that rewards the good and punishes the bad, and creates an external environment conducive to high-quality development.The core of the market economy is to provide all kinds of goods that people need in the most efficient way, and the most efficient way is free competition. Under the condition of clear rules and supervision, give full play to the power of the market and let the best stand out. Let competition promote the survival of the fittest and promote the continuous progress of enterprises. To promote the survival of the fittest, first of all, it is required to strengthen supervision and services, especially to improve the corporate integrity system as soon as possible, to increase the intensity of spot checks on the quality of corporate products, and to make full use of information technology, so that upstream and downstream and consumers can easily obtain the quality of corporate products. information. It is also necessary to improve the market environment to promote the survival of the fittest. The government must increase investment in market supervision, in-depth crackdown on counterfeit and shoddy products, especially in emerging business fields such as e-commerce, and weighted consumer rights protection. Punishment to prevent bad money from driving out good money, so that consumers can buy domestic products with confidence, achieve high quality and good price, and lead enterprises to improve their cultivation industry and strive for excellence.

Second, support R&D innovation and master core technologies.R&D innovation requires the cooperation of production, learning, research, and users. Among them, enterprises are the main body of R&D, but the role of the government is particularly important. The Central Economic Work Conference proposed that it is necessary to enhance the technological innovation capability of the manufacturing industry, build an open, collaborative and efficient common technology research and development platform, and improve the demand-oriented and enterprise-based integrated innovation mechanism of production, education and research. In particular, it is proposed to speed up the layout of national laboratories, reorganize the national key laboratory system, and increase support for innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises.

Third, encourage digital and intelligent transformation and promote technological upgrading.At present, the new generation of intelligent manufacturing technologies such as Industry 4.0 in various countries are developing rapidly. With the continuous reduction of the cost of information technology and intelligent robots, these informatization, digitalization and intelligent technologies can significantly improve the production efficiency of enterprises, reduce production costs and improve competitiveness. However, digital and intelligent transformation requires a lot of capital investment and the improvement of system solutions, and requires systematic support policies from the government.

Fourth, significantly reduce the cost of the real economy and gain time for high-quality development.The development level of Chinese enterprises is uneven, and many enterprises are already facing very severe international competition, especially low-cost competition from late-developing countries such as Vietnam. However, the transformation, upgrading and high-quality development of the manufacturing industry cannot be achieved overnight, and it will take a long time. , A large number of traditional industry upgrades need to be down-to-earth and earnestly do fine work. In recent years, the cost of labor, environmental protection, quality and safety in my country has risen rapidly. Many enterprises have been unable to compete with foreign countries and have begun to move abroad. It should be noted that once many international markets are lost, it will be difficult for them to return to foreign countries. Therefore, at present, we need to focus on reducing taxes and fees, reducing the burden on enterprises in many ways, so that enterprises can first maintain their market share, and then further transform and upgrade to enhance their competitiveness.

In short, since 2010, the scale of my country’s manufacturing industry has surpassed that of the United States and has become the world’s largest manufacturing power. By 2017, the scale of my country’s manufacturing industry has been far behind the United States. But on the other hand, my country is not yet a manufacturing powerhouse, facing increasingly vigilance and suppression from developed countries, and low-cost competition from developing countries. The traditional path of scale expansion and low-quality growth is unsustainable. Adhere to innovation-driven, adhere to the survival of the fittest to improve efficiency, and take a new high-quality development path, in order to drive my country’s economy to break through difficulties and reach a new level.